Guar 42722 207691032 2008-04-23T20:30:53Z Lightmouse 4469495 Units/dates/other using [[Project:AutoWikiBrowser|AWB]] {{Taxobox | name = Guar | regnum = [[Plant]]ae | divisio = [[Flowering plant|Magnoliophyta]] | classis = [[Dicotyledon|Magnoliopsida]] | ordo = [[Fabales]] | familia = [[Fabaceae]] | subfamilia = [[Faboideae]] | tribus = [[Indigofereae]] | genus = ''[[Cyamopsis]]'' | species = '''''C. tetragonoloba''''' | binomial = ''Cyamopsis tetragonoloba'' | binomial_authority = ([[Carolus Linnaeus|L.]]) [[Paul Hermann Wilhelm Taubert|Taub.]] | synonyms = ''Cyamopsis psoralioides'' <small>L.</small> }} The '''guar bean''' or '''cluster bean''' (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus), an annual [[legume]], is the source of [[guar gum]]. It grows best under conditions with frequent rainfall, but tolerates arid conditions well.<ref>[ "Guar Gum" - Agro Gums]</ref> 80% of world production is in [[India]], but due to strong demand, it is being introduced into new areas. ==Cultivation== For best growth, the guar bean requires full sunshine, flashing rainfalls that are moderately frequent, and well drained soil. However, it is extremely drought tolerant and thrives in semi-[[arid]] regions. Too much precipitation can cause the plant to become more "leafy" thereby reducing the number of pods and/or the number of seeds per pod that affects the size and yield of seeds. The crop is sown after the first rains in July and harvested in late October.It is grown principally in northwestern [[India]], and [[Pakistan]]<ref>[" Guar Gum". Midwest Herbs]</ref> with smaller crops grown in the semi-arid areas of the high plains of Texas in the [[United States|USA]]<ref>[ "Guar Production"] Vernon Agricultural Research & Extension Center, Texas A&M Univ. 2006.</ref>, [[Australia]] and [[Africa]]. The most important growing area centres on [[Jodhpur]] in [[Rajasthan]], India. Currently India is the source of about 80% of the world production of guar gum. Several commercial growers <ref>[ "large scale guar growers"]</ref> have converted their crops to guar production to support the increasing demand for guar and other organic crops <ref>[ "organic fertilizer crops"] </ref> in the United States. Varieties: Pusa Naubahar and Pusa Sadabahar. Seeds at the rate of 10 to 12 kilograms/[[hectare]]s (9&ndash;11&nbsp;[[Pound (mass)|lb]]/[[acre]]<!--22-26.5 div 2.47 acres-->) are planted at a spacing of 45-60 x 20-30 cm (18&ndash;24&nbsp;x&nbsp;8&ndash;12&nbsp;[[Inch|in]]) in February-March and June-July. During rainy season, the seeds are sown 2-3 cm (~1&nbsp;in) deep on ridges and in furrows during summer months. FYM is applied at the rate of 25 [[Metric ton|tonnes]]/ha (11.1&nbsp;[[Short ton|tons]]/acre). N, P2O5 and K2O recommendation for the crop is 20:60:80 kg/ha (18:53:71&nbsp;lb/acre). Average yield is 5 to 6 tonnes/ha (2.2&ndash;2.6&nbsp;tons/acre). ==Uses== ===Agriculture=== Guar can be fed to [[cattle]], or used as a [[green manure]]. ===Food=== Guar can be eaten as a [[green bean]], but is more important as the source of guar gum. Guar beans have a large [[endosperm]] that contains [[galactomannan]] gum, a substance which forms a [[gel]] in water. This is commonly known as [[guar gum]] and is used in dairy products like [[ice cream]] and as a stabilizer in [[cheese]] and cold-meat processing. Another use is as a fiber supplement. After being partially hydrolyzed, guar gum is completely soluble in water and soft food. Being approximately 75% dietary fiber, it allows fiber to be added to a food with a minimal effect on taste and texture. ===Industrial uses=== Derivatives of Guar gum that has been further reacted is also used in industrial applications such as the paper and textile industry, ore flotation, the manufacture of explosives and [[hydraulic fracturing]] of oil and gas formations. Guar gum has also proven a useful substitute for [[locust bean gum]] (made from [[carob]] seeds). == References == <references/> == External links == *[ ITIS 506245] == Scientific Literature == * [ Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 May; 56(5): 1429–1434] Secretion of the [[alpha-galactosidase]] from [[Cyamopsis tetragonoloba]] (guar) by [[Bacillus subtilis]] * [ Curr Genet. 1992 Apr;21(4-5):365-70] Multiple-copy integration of the [[alpha-galactosidase]] gene from [[Cyamopsis tetragonoloba]] into the [[ribosomal DNA]] of [[Kluyveromyces lactis]]. * [ Annals of Botany 59: 281-284, 1987] Effect of B Vitamins on the Protein Component of Clusterbeans Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub [[Category:Faboideae]] [[Category:Edible legumes]] [[Category:Underutilized crops]] [[ca:Cyamopsis tetragonoloba]] [[de:Guarbohne]] [[fr:Cyamopsis tetragonoloba]] [[ja:グアー豆]] [[es:cyamopsis tetragonoloba]]