Tom and Jerry 871053 225979238 2008-07-16T08:44:02Z /* Tom and Jerry */ {{otheruses}} [[Image:Tomjerrylogo40s.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Rare ''Tom and Jerry'' title card from the 1940s, no longer seen on re-issue prints.]] '''''Tom and Jerry''''' was a successful and long-running series of theatrical [[short subject]]s created by [[William Hanna]] and [[Joseph Barbera]] for [[Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer]] that centered on a never-ending rivalry between a housecat (Tom) and a brown [[mouse]] (Jerry) whose chases and battles often involved comic violence. Hanna and Barbera ultimately wrote and directed one hundred and fourteen ''Tom and Jerry'' cartoons at [[Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer cartoon studio|the MGM cartoon studio]] in [[Hollywood, Los Angeles, California|Hollywood, California]] between [[1940 in film|1940]] and [[1957 in film|1957]], when the animation unit was closed down. The original series is notable for having won the [[Academy Award for Animated Short Film|Academy Awards for Best Short Subject (Cartoons)]] seven times, tying it with [[Walt Disney]]'s ''[[Silly Symphonies]]'' as the most-awarded theatrical animated series. In 1960, in addition to the originals MGM had new shorts produced by [[Rembrandt Films]], led by [[Gene Deitch]] in Eastern Europe. Production of Tom and Jerry shorts returned to Hollywood under [[Chuck Jones]]' [[Sib-Tower 12 Productions]] in 1963; this series lasted until 1967. The cat and mouse stars later resurfaced in television cartoons produced by [[Hanna-Barbera]] and [[Filmation Studios]] during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, and a feature film, ''[[Tom and Jerry: The Movie]]'', in 1993. Today, [[Warner Bros.]] owns the rights to ''Tom and Jerry'', and produces the series ''[[Tom and Jerry Tales]]'' for [[The CW]]'s [[Saturday morning cartoon|Saturday morning]] "[[Kids WB]]" lineup, as well as a string of ''Tom and Jerry'' direct-to-video films. ==Plot and format== [[Image:TomandJerryTitleCard1.jpg|thumb|200px|right|''Tom and Jerry'' title card used during the late 1940s and early 1950s, attached to many reissues of early and mid 1940s shorts.]] The plots of each short usually center on Tom's frustrated attempts to catch Jerry, and the mayhem and destruction that ensues. Since Tom rarely attempts to eat Jerry and because the pair actually seem to get along in some cartoon shorts (at least in the first minute or so), it is unclear why Tom chases Jerry so much. But some reasons given may include normal feline/murine enmity, duty according to his owner, Jerry's attempt at ruining a task that Tom is entrusted with, revenge, Jerry saving other potential [[prey]] (such as [[duck]]s, [[canary|canaries]], or [[goldfish]]) from being eaten by Tom, or competition with another cat, among other reasons. Tom rarely succeeds in catching Jerry, mainly because of Jerry's cleverness and cunning abilities, but sometimes because of Tom's own stupidity. Tom sometimes beats Jerry, usually when Jerry becomes the instigator or when he crosses some sort of line. Many of the title cards (see illustrations) show Tom and Jerry smiling at each other, contrasting with the apparent antipathy displayed towards each other in each cartoon. The shorts are famous for some of the most violent gags ever devised in theatrical animation: Jerry slicing Tom in half, shutting his head in a window or a door, Tom using everything from [[axe]]s, [[pistol]]s, [[explosive]]s, [[trap]]s and [[poison]] to try to [[murder]] Jerry, Jerry stuffing Tom's tail in a [[waffle iron]], kicking him into a [[refrigerator]], plugging his [[tail]] into an [[Domestic AC power plugs and sockets|electric socket]], pounding him with a [[Mace (club)|mace]], [[Club (weapon)|club]] or [[mallet]], causing a [[tree]] to drive him into the ground and so on. Despite the frequent violence, there is no blood or gore in any scenes. A recurring gag involves Jerry hitting Tom when he's preoccupied, with Tom initially oblivious to the pain - and only feeling the effects moments later, and vice versa; and another involves Jerry stopping Tom in midchase (as if calling for a time-out), before he does something, usually putting the hurt on Tom. The cartoon is also noteworthy for its reliance on [[stereotype]]s, such as the blackening of characters following explosions and the use of heavy and enlarged shadows (e.g., ''[[Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Mouse]]''). Resemblance to everyday objects and occurrences is arguably the main appeal of visual [[humor]] in the series. The characters themselves regularly transform into ridiculous but strongly associative shapes, most of the time involuntarily, in masked but gruesome ways (see also [[Cartoon physics]]). [[Music]] plays a very important part in the shorts, emphasizing the action, filling in for traditional sound effects, and lending emotion to the scenes. Musical director [[Scott Bradley]] created complex scores that combined elements of [[jazz]], classical, and pop music; Bradley often reprised contemporary pop songs, as well as songs from MGM films, including ''[[The Wizard of Oz (1939 movie)|The Wizard of Oz]]'' and ''[[Meet Me In St. Louis]]''. Generally, there is no dialogue in Tom or Jerry, apart from the occasional few lines in certain moments. The character [[Mammy Two Shoes]] has lines in every episode. Most of the dialogue from Tom and Jerry are the high-pitched laughs and gasping screams, which may be provided by a horn or other musical instrument. Before 1954, all ''Tom and Jerry'' cartoons were produced in the standard [[Academy ratio]] and format; from late 1954 to 1955, some of the output was dually produced in both Academy format and the [[widescreen]] [[CinemaScope]] process. From 1956 until the close of the MGM cartoon studio a year later, all ''Tom and Jerry'' cartoons were produced in CinemaScope, some even had their soundtracks recorded in [[Perspecta Stereo]]. The 1960s Gene Deitch and Chuck Jones shorts were all produced in Academy format, but with compositions that made them compatible to be matted to Academy widescreen format as well. All of the Hanna and Barbera cartoons were produced in three-strip [[Technicolor]], the 1960s entries were done in [[Metrocolor]]. ==Characters== ===''Tom and Jerry''=== [[Image:MouseTroublebook.jpg|left|thumb|Tom Cat and Jerry Mouse, in a scene from the 1944 Academy award-winning short ''[[Mouse Trouble]]''.]] Tom is a [[Russian Blue]] cat, who lives a pampered life, while Jerry is a small [[brown]] [[mouse]] who always lives in proximity to him. "Tom" is a generic name for a male cat or ''[[cat#Etymology and taxonomic history|tomcat]]'' (the [[Warner Bros.]] cartoon character [[Sylvester (Looney Tunes)|Sylvester]] was originally called "Thomas"). Tom was originally called 'Jasper' in early shorts such as "Puss Gets the Boot", despite the Tom and Jerry marquee at the start of the feature. Tom is very quick-tempered and thin-skinned, while Jerry is independent and opportunistic, Jerry also posseses surprsing strength for his size, lifting items such as anvils and withstanding considerable impacts with them. Despite being very energetic and determined, Tom is no match for Jerry's brains and wits. By the ''iris-out'' of each cartoon, Jerry usually emerges triumphant, while Tom is shown as the loser. However, other results may be reached; on rare occasions, Tom triumphs. Sometimes, usually ironically, they both lose or they both end up being friends (only for something to happen so that Tom will chase Jerry again). Both characters display [[sadistic]] tendencies, in that they are equally likely to take pleasure in tormenting each other. However, depending on the cartoon, whenever one character appears to be in mortal danger (in a dangerous situation or by an enemy), the other will develop a conscience and save him. Sometimes they bond over a mutual sentiment towards an unpleasant experience and their attacking each other is more play than serious attacks. Although many supporting and minor characters speak, Tom and Jerry rarely do so. Tom, most famously, sings while wooing female cats; for example, Tom sings [[Louis Jordan]]'s ''[[Is You Is Or Is You Ain't My Baby]]'' in the 1946 short ''[[Solid Serenade]]''. In one short, Tom, when romancing a female cat, woos her in a French-accented voice similar to that of screen actor [[Charles Boyer]]. Co-director William Hanna provided most of the squeaks, gasps, and other vocal effects for the pair, including the most famous sound effect from the series, Tom's leather-lunged scream (created by recording Hanna's scream and eliminating the beginning and ending of the recording, leaving only the strongest part of the scream on the soundtrack). The only other reasonably common vocalization is made by Tom when some external reference claims a certain scenario or eventuality to be impossible, which inevitably, ironically happens to thwart Tom's plans - at which point, a bedraggled and battered Tom appears and says in a haunting, echoing voice "Don't you believe it!", a reference to some famous World War II [[propaganda]] shorts of the 1940's. One short, 1956's ''[[Blue Cat Blues]]'', is narrated by Jerry in [[voiceover]] (voiced by [[Paul Frees]]). Both Tom and Jerry speak more than once, in the 1943 short ''[[The Lonesome Mouse]]''. ===Recurring characters=== [[Image:Spike and tyke.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Spike the bulldog and his son Tyke, in the 1951 ''Tom and Jerry'' short ''[[Slicked-up Pup]]''.]] In his attempts to catch Jerry, Tom often has to deal with the intrusions of [[Butch (MGM)|Butch]], a scruffy black alley cat who also wants to catch and eat Jerry, [[Spike (Tom and Jerry)|Spike]] (sometimes billed as "Killer" or "Butch"), an angry, vicious guard bulldog who tries to attack Tom for bothering his son Tyke while trying to get Jerry, in earlier episodes Spike is extremely sadistic chasing and trying to maul both Tom and Jerry forcing the two to work together to defeat him. Spike spoke often, using a voice and expressions (performed by [[Daws Butler]]) modeled after comedian [[Jimmy Durante]]. The addition of Spike's son Tyke in the late 1940s led to both a slight softening of Spike's character and a short-lived spin-off theatrical series (''[[Spike and Tyke]]''). Tom changes his love interest many times. The first love interest speaks in a haughty tone in ''[[The Zoot Cat]]'', and calls him "Tommy" in ''[[The Mouse Comes to Dinner]]''. The second and frequent love interest of Tom's is [[Toodles (Tom and Jerry)|Toodles Galore]], who never has any dialogue in ''Tom and Jerry'' cartoons. [[Image:Nibblesfat.jpg|left|200px|thumb|Nibbles, the little orphan mouse, later named "Tuffy".]] From the beginning (the first episode), Tom also has to deal with Miss Mammy Two Shoes (voiced by [[Lillian Randolph]]), a stereotyped [[African-American]] domestic [[housemaid]]. In the earliest shorts, Mammy is depicted as the maid taking care of the often opulent home in which Tom and Jerry reside. Later ''Tom and Jerry'' shorts are set in what appears to be Mammy's own house. Her [[face]] is [[unseen character|never seen]] (with the exception of 1950's ''[[Saturday Evening Puss]]'', in which her face is very briefly seen as she runs towards the camera), and she usually wallops the cat with a broom when he misbehaves. When Mammy was not present, other humans would sometimes be seen, usually from the neck down as well. Mammy would appear in many cartoons until 1952's ''[[Push-Button Kitty]]''. Later cartoons would instead show ''Tom and Jerry'' living with a 1950s [[Yuppie]]-style couple. Soon after, virtually all humans in the series had visible faces. Jerry adopted a little gray mouse foundling named Nibbles (also later known as [[Tuffy]]), coming from a certain "[[Mrs. Bide-a-Wee Mouse Home]]." In Nibbles' earliest appearances, he is depicted as constantly hungry. In later years, Nibbles lost the gluttonous element of his personality and often spoke, usually in a foreign accent or language keeping with the theme and setting of the short (for example, [[French language|French]] in ''[[Touché, Pussy Cat!]]'', [[British English]] in ''[[Robin Hoodwinked]]''). Another recurring character in the series was [[Quacker (Tom and Jerry)|Quacker]] the duckling, who was later adapted into the Hanna-Barbera character [[Yakky Doodle]]. He appears in [[Little Ouacker]], [[Duck Doctor]], [[Just Ducky]], [[Downhearted Duckling]], [[Southbound Duckling]], [[That's My Mommy]], [[Happy Go Ducky]] and [[The Vanishing Duck]]. ==History and evolution== ===Hanna-Barbera era (1940 &ndash; 1958)=== [[Image:PDVD_021.JPG|thumb|200px|right|''Tom and Jerry'' creators/directors William Hanna and Joseph Barbera, with the seven [[Academy Award for Animated Short Film|Academy Awards for Best Short Subject (Cartoons)]] their ''Tom and Jerry'' shorts won.]] William Hanna and Joseph Barbera were both part of the [[Rudolf Ising]] unit at the MGM cartoon studio in the late 1930s. Barbera, a storyman and character designer, was paired with Hanna, an experienced director, to start directing films for the Ising unit; the first of these was a cat-and-mouse cartoon called ''[[Puss Gets the Boot]]''. Completed in late 1939, and released to theatres on [[February 10]], [[1940]], ''Puss Gets The Boot'' centers on Jasper, a grey tabby cat trying to catch an unnamed rodent, but after accidentally breaking a houseplant and its stand, the African-American housemaid Mammy (Later Tom's owner) has threatened to throw Jasper out ("O-W-T, out!") if he breaks one more thing in the house. Naturally, the mouse uses this to his advantage, and begins tossing [[wine glass]]es, [[Plate (dishware)|ceramic plate]]s, [[teapot]]s, and any and everything fragile, so that Jasper will be thrown outside. ''Puss Gets The Boot'' was previewed and released without fanfare, and Hanna and Barbera went on to direct other (non-cat-and-mouse related) shorts. "After all," remarked many of the MGM staffers, "haven't there been enough cat-and-mouse cartoons already?" [[Image:Puss Get the Boot.jpg|thumb|200px|left|A screenshot from [[1940]]'s ''[[Puss Gets the Boot]]'', the first ''Tom and Jerry'' cartoon.]] The pessimistic attitude towards the cat and mouse duo changed when the cartoon became a favorite with theatre owners and with the [[Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences]], which nominated the film for the ''Academy Award for Best Short Subject: Cartoons'' of 1941. It lost to another MGM cartoon, Rudolph Ising's ''[[The Milky Way (1940 short film)|The Milky Way]]''. Producer [[Fred Quimby]], who ran the MGM animation studio, quickly pulled Hanna and Barbera off the other one-shot cartoons they were working on, and commissioned a series featuring the cat and mouse. Hanna and Barbera held an intra-studio contest to give the pair a new name; animator [[John Carr]] won with his suggestion of ''Tom and Jerry''. The ''Tom and Jerry'' series went into production with ''[[The Midnight Snack]]'' in 1941, and Hanna and Barbera rarely directed anything but the cat-and-mouse cartoons for the rest of their tenure at MGM. Tom's physical appearance evolved significantly over the years. During the early 1940s, Tom had an excess of detail--shaggy fur, numerous facial [[wrinkle]]s, and multiple eyebrow markings--all of which were streamlined into a more workable form by the end of the 1940s- and looked like a realistic cat; in addition from his quadrupedal beginnings Tom became increasingly, and eventually almost exclusively, bipedal. By contrast, Jerry's design remained essentially the same for the duration of the series. By the mid-1940s, the series had developed a quicker, more energetic (and violent) tone, due to the inspiration from the work of the colleague in the MGM cartoon studio, [[Tex Avery]], who joined the studio in 1942. [[Image:Tom & Jerry-Piano Concerto 2.jpg|right|200px|thumb|''Tom and Jerry'' in the 1946 Academy Award winning cartoon ''[[The Cat Concerto]]''.]] Even though the theme of each short is virtually the same - cat chases mouse - Hanna and Barbera found endless variations on that theme. Barbera's storyboards and rough layouts and designs, combined with Hanna's timing, resulted in MGM's most popular and successful cartoon series. Thirteen entries in the ''Tom and Jerry'' series (including ''Puss Gets The Boot'') were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Short Subject: Cartoons; seven of them went on to win the Academy Award, breaking the [[Walt Disney Productions|Disney studio]]'s winning streak in that category. ''Tom and Jerry'' won more Academy Awards than any other character-based theatrical animated series. ''Tom and Jerry'' remained popular throughout their original theatrical run, even when the budgets began to tighten somewhat in the 1950s and the pace of the shorts slowed slightly. However, after [[television]] became popular in the 1950s, [[box office]] revenues decreased for theatrical films, and short subjects. At first, MGM combated this by going to all-CinemaScope production on the series. After MGM realized that their re-releases of the older shorts brought in just as much revenue as the new films, the studio executives decided, much to the surprise of the staff, to close the animation studio. The MGM cartoon studio was shut down in 1957, and the final of the 114 Hanna and Barbera ''Tom and Jerry'' shorts, ''[[Tot Watchers]]'', was released on August 1, 1958. Hanna and Barbera established their own television animation studio, [[Hanna-Barbera Productions]], in 1957, which went on to produce such popular shows as ''[[The Flintstones]]'', ''[[Top Cat]]'', ''[[The Jetsons]]'', ''[[Yogi Bear]]'', and ''[[Scooby-Doo]]''. ===Gene Deitch era (1960 &ndash; 1962)=== [[Image:Highsteaks.jpg|thumb|left|200px|''[[High Steaks]]'', a 1961 ''Tom and Jerry'' short directed by Gene Deitch.]] In 1960, MGM decided to produce new ''Tom and Jerry'' shorts, and had producer [[William L. Snyder]] arrange with Czech-based animation director [[Gene Deitch]] and his studio, [[Rembrandt Films]], to make the films overseas in [[Prague]], [[Czechoslovakia]]. The Deitch/Snyder team turned out 13 shorts, many of which have a surrealistic quality. Since the Deitch/Snyder team had seen only a handful of the original ''Tom and Jerry'' shorts, the resulting films were considered unusual, and, in many ways, bizarre. The characters' gestures were often performed at high speed, frequently causing heavy motion blur. As a result, the animation of the characters looked choppy and sickly. The soundtracks featured sparse music, spacey [[sound effects]], dialogue that was mumbled rather than spoken, and heavy use of [[Reverberation|reverb]]. Fans that typically rooted for Tom criticized Deitch's cartoons for having Tom never become a threat to Jerry, and the only time when Tom ever attempts to hurt Jerry is when he gets in his way. Tom's new owner, a corpulent white man, was also more graphically brutal in punishing Tom's mistakes as compared to Mammy. Surprisingly, the Gene Deitch ''Tom and Jerry'' cartoons are still rerun today on a semi-regular basis. These shorts are among the few ''Tom and Jerry'' cartoons not to carry the "Made In Hollywood, U.S.A." phrase at the end. Due to Deitch's studio being behind the [[Iron Curtain]], the production studio's location is omitted entirely on it ===Chuck Jones era (1963 &ndash; 1967)=== [[Image:Tom and Jerry Chuck Jones.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Screenshot from one of the ''Tom and Jerry'' shorts directed by Chuck Jones.]] After the last of the Deitch cartoons were released, MGM turned to American director Chuck Jones, famous for his work on ''[[Looney Tunes]]'' and ''[[Merrie Melodies]]'' shorts starring [[Bugs Bunny]], [[Daffy Duck]], and ''[[Wile E. Coyote and Road Runner|Wile E. Coyote and the Road Runner]]'', among others. Jones had just ended his thirty-plus year tenure at [[Warner Bros. Cartoons]] and started his own animation studio, [[Sib Tower 12 Productions]], with partner, Les Goldman. Beginning in 1963, Jones and Goldman went on to produce 34 more ''Tom and Jerry'' shorts, all of which carried Jones' distinctive style (and a slight psychedelic influence). However, despite being animated by essentially the same artists who worked with Jones at Warners, these new shorts had varying degrees of critical success. Jones had trouble adapting his style to ''Tom and Jerry'''s brand of humor, and a number of the cartoons favored poses, personality, and style over storyline. The characters underwent a slight change of appearance: Tom was given thicker, [[Boris Karloff]]-like [[eyebrow]]s, a less complex look, and furrier cheeks, while Jerry was given larger eyes and ears, and a sweeter, [[Porky Pig]]-like expression. Some of Jones's ''Tom and Jerry'' cartoons are reminiscent of his work with ''Wile E. Coyote and the Road Runner'', included the uses of blackout gags and gags involving characters falling from high precipices. Jones co-directed the majority of the shorts with layout artist [[Maurice Noble]]. The remaining shorts were directed by [[Abe Levitow]] and [[Ben Washam]], with [[Tom Ray]] directing two shorts built around footage from earlier ''Tom and Jerry'' cartoons directed by Hanna and Barbera. Various vocal characterisations were made by [[Mel Blanc]], famous for his work as the voice of Bugs Bunny and Porky Pig, and [[June Foray]], famous for her work as the voice of [[Granny (Looney Tunes)|Granny]] and [[Rocky_and_bullwinkle|Rocky]] the flying squirrel. MGM ceased production of animated shorts in 1967, by which time Sib Tower 12 had become [[MGM Animation/Visual Arts]], and Jones had moved on television specials and the feature film ''[[The Phantom Tollbooth (film)|The Phantom Tollbooth]]''. ===''Tom and Jerry'' hit television=== [[Image:Mammytwoshoes.jpg|left|200px|thumb|Mammy Two Shoes, the black housemaid who made many appearances in the 1940s and early 1950s ''Tom and Jerry'' shorts, as seen in 1947's ''[[Old Rockin' Chair Tom]]''. Over the years, ''Tom and Jerry'' cartoons featuring Mammy have been edited, modified, or withheld from broadcast in various ways.]] Beginning in 1965, the Hanna and Barbera ''Tom and Jerry'' shows began to appear on television in heavily edited form: the Jones team was required to take ''[[Saturday Evening Puss]]'', which featured Mammy, [[rotoscope]] her out, and replace her with a thin white woman, with [[Lillian Randolph]]'s original voice tracks replaced by [[June Foray]] performing in an Irish accent. However, in local telecasts of the cartoons, and in the ones shown on [[Boomerang (TV channel)|Boomerang]], Mammy, featured in the other shorts, could once again be seen, and more recently, with a new, less stereotypical black voice supplied. Much of the extreme violence in the cartoons were also edited out. Starting out on [[CBS]]' Saturday Morning schedule on September 25, 1965, ''Tom and Jerry'' moved to CBS Sundays two years later and remained there until September 17, 1972. ===''Tom and Jerry'''s new owners=== In 1986, MGM was purchased by [[WTBS]] founder [[Ted Turner]]. Turner sold the company a short while later, but retained MGM's pre-1986 film library, thus ''Tom and Jerry'' became the property of [[Turner Entertainment]] (where the rights stand today via Warner Bros.), and have in subsequent years appeared on Turner-run stations, such as [[TBS (TV network)|TBS]], [[Turner Network Television|TNT]], [[Cartoon Network]], [[Boomerang (TV channel)|Boomerang]], and [[Turner Classic Movies]]. ===''Tom and Jerry'' outside the United States=== When shown on terrestrial television in the [[United Kingdom]] (from 1967 to 2000, usually on the [[BBC]]) ''Tom and Jerry'' cartoons were not cut for violence and Mammy was retained. As well as having regular slots, ''Tom and Jerry'' served the BBC in another way. When faced with disruption to the schedules (such as those occurring when live broadcasts overrun), the BBC would invariably turn to ''Tom and Jerry'' to fill any gaps, confident that it would retain much of an audience that might otherwise channel hop. This proved particularly helpful in 1993, when ''[[Noel's House Party]]'' had to be canceled due to an [[Provisional Irish Republican Army|IRA]] bomb scare at [[BBC Television Centre]] - ''Tom and Jerry'' was shown instead, bridging the gap until the next programme. Recently, a mother has complained to [[OFCOM]] of the smoking scenes shown in the cartoons, since Tom often attempts to impress love interests with the habit, resulting in reports that the smoking scenes in ''Tom and Jerry'' films may be subject to censorship.<ref name="BBC">[ BBC NEWS | Entertainment | Smoke's no joke for Tom and Jerry<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> Due to its lack of dialog, ''Tom and Jerry'' was easily translated into various foreign languages. ''Tom and Jerry'' began broadcast in [[Japan]] in 1964. A 2005 nationwide survey taken in Japan by [[TV Asahi]], sampling age groups from teenagers to adults in their sixties, ranked ''Tom and Jerry'' #85 in a list of the top 100 "[[anime]]" of all time; while their web poll taken after the airing of the list ranked it at #58 - the only non-Japanese animation on the list, and beating anime classics like ''[[Tsubasa: Reservoir Chronicle]]'', ''[[A Little Princess Sara]]'', and the ultra-classics ''[[Macross]]'', ''[[Ghost in the Shell]]'', and ''[[Rurouni Kenshin]]'' (it should be noted that in Japan, the word "anime" refers to ''all'' animation regardless of origin, not just Japanese animation).<ref name="anime">[]</ref> ''Tom and Jerry'' is also well-known in [[Saudi Arabia]], [[China]], [[Indonesia]], [[Iran]], [[Pakistan]], [[Bangladesh]], [[Thailand]], [[Mongolia]], and [[South Korea]]. ''Tom and Jerry'' have long been popular in [[Germany]]. However, the cartoons are overdubbed with rhyming [[German language]] verse that describes what is happening onscreen and provides additional funny content. The different episodes are usually embedded in the episode ''[[Jerry's Diary]]'' (1949), in which Tom reads about past adventures. In [[South East Asia]], [[India]], [[Pakistan]], [[Argentina]], [[Mexico]], [[Colombia]], [[Brazil]], [[Romania]], [[Venezuela]], and other [[Latin American]] countries Cartoon Network still airs ''Tom and Jerry'' cartoons everyday. In [[Russia]], local channels also air the show in its daytime programming slot. ''Tom and Jerry'' was one of the few cartoons of western origin broadcast in Czechoslovakia (1988) before the fall of [[Communism]] in 1989. ===Censorship=== Like a number of other animated cartoons in the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, ''Tom and Jerry'' was not considered [[politically correct]] in later years. Some cartoons featured either Tom or Jerry in [[blackface]] following an explosion, which are subsequently cut when shown on television today, although ''[[The Yankee Doodle Mouse]]'' blackface gag is still shown in other countries. The black maid, Mammy Two Shoes, is often considered racist because she is depicted as a poor black woman who has a rodent problem. Her voice was redubbed by Turner in the mid-1990s in hopes of making the character sound less stereotypical. One cartoon in particular, ''[[His Mouse Friday]]'', is often banned from television due to the cannibals being seen as racist stereotypes. If shown, the cannibals' dialogue is edited out, although their mouths can be seen moving. In 2006, United Kingdom channel [[Boomerang (British TV channel)|Boomerang]] made plans to edit ''Tom and Jerry'' cartoons being aired in the UK where the characters were seen to be smoking in a manner that was "condoned, acceptable or glamorised." This followed a complaint from a viewer that the cartoons were not appropriate for younger viewers, and a subsequent investigation by UK media watchdog [[OFCOM]].<ref name ="BBC"/> It has also taken the U.S. approach by editing out blackface gags, though this seems to be random as not all scenes of this type are cut. ==Later television shows, specials and theatrical shorts== [[Image:Tom Jerry Show.jpg|200px|right|thumb|The title card for Hanna-Barbera's 1975 series, ''The Tom and Jerry Show'']] In 1975, ''Tom and Jerry'' were reunited with Hanna and Barbera, who produced new ''Tom and Jerry'' cartoons for Saturday mornings. These 48 seven-minute short cartoons were paired with ''[[The Great Grape Ape]]'' and ''[[Mumbly]]'' cartoons, to create ''The [[Tom and Jerry Show|New Tom and Jerry]]/Grape Ape Show'', ''The Tom and Jerry/Grape Ape/Mumbly Show'', and ''The Tom and Jerry/Mumbly Show,'' all of which ran on [[American Broadcasting Company|ABC]] Saturday Morning from September 6, 1975 to September 3, 1977. In these cartoons, ''Tom and Jerry'' (now with a [[red]] [[bow tie]]), who had been enemies during their formative years, became nonviolent pals who went on adventures together, as Hanna-Barbera had to meet the stringent rules against violence for children's TV. [[Image:Tom and jerry comedy show title.jpg|200px|left|thumb|Title card of ''The Tom and Jerry Comedy Show'']] [[Filmation|Filmation Studios]] (in association with [[MGM Television]]) also tried their hands at producing a ''Tom and Jerry'' TV series. Their version, ''[[The Tom and Jerry Comedy Show]]'', debuted in 1980, and also featured new cartoons starring [[Droopy]], Spike (another bulldog created by Tex Avery), and [[Barney Bear]], not seen since the original MGM shorts. The thirty Filmation ''Tom and Jerry'' cartoons were noticeably different from Hanna-Barbera's efforts, as they returned ''Tom and Jerry'' to the original chase formula, with a somewhat more "[[slapstick]]" humor format. This incarnation, much like the 1975 version, was not as well received by [[audience]]s as the originals, and lasted on CBS Saturday Morning from September 6, 1980 to September 4, 1982. [[Image:Tom&JerryKidsTitle.jpg|right|200px|thumb|The title card for Hanna-Barbera's 1990 &ndash; 1993 series ''Tom and Jerry Kids'', produced for the [[Fox Kids]] network.]] One of the biggest trends for Saturday morning television in the 1980s and 1990s was the [[Child versions of famous classic cartoon stars|"babyfication" of older, classic cartoon stars]], and on September 8, 1990, ''[[Tom and Jerry Kids]]'', co-produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions and Turner Entertainment Co. debuted on [[Fox Broadcasting Company|FOX]]. It featured a youthful version of the famous cat-and-mouse duo chasing each other. As with the 1970s H-B series, Jerry wears his red bowtie, while Tom now wears a red cap. Spike and his son Tyke, and Droopy and his son Dripple, appeared in back-up segments for the show, which ran until October 2, 1993. In 2000, a new made-for-TV ''Tom and Jerry'' short entitled ''[[The Mansion Cat]]'' premiered on Cartoon Network. It featured Joe Barbera (who was also a creative consultant) as the voice of Tom's owner, whose face is never seen. In this cartoon, Jerry, housed in a [[habitrail]], is as much of a house pet as Tom is, and their owner has to remind Tom to not "blame everything on the mouse". A new ''Tom and Jerry'' theatrical short, entitled ''[[The KarateGuard]]'', which had been written by Joseph Barbera, directed by Barbera and Spike Brandt, [[storyboard]]ed by Barbera and [[Iwao Takamoto]] and produced by Joseph Barbera, Spike Brandt and Tony Cervone premiered in Los Angeles cinemas on September 27, 2005. As part of the celebration of ''Tom and Jerry'''s sixty-fifth anniversary, this marked Barbera's first return as a writer, director and storyboard artist on the series since his and Hanna's original MGM cartoon shorts. Director/animator Spike Brandt was nominated for an Annie award for best character animation. The short debuted on Cartoon Network on January 27, 2006. [[Image:Tomandjerrytales.jpg|200px|left|thumb|Title card of ''Tom and Jerry Tales'']] During the first half of 2006, a new series called ''[[Tom and Jerry Tales]]'' was produced at [[Warner Bros. Animation]]. Thirteen half-hour episodes (each consisting of three shorts) were produced, with only markets outside of the United States and United Kingdom signed up. The show then came to the UK in February 2006 on [[Boomerang (UK)|Boomerang]], and is currently airing on [[Kids' WB!]] on [[The CW Television Network|The CW]] in the US.<ref name="toynews">[ Kids' WB! on The CW Announces 2006-2007 "Too Big for Your TV" Saturday Morning Programming Schedule - Cartoons -<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>. ''Tales'' is the first ''Tom and Jerry'' TV series that utilizes the original style of the classic shorts, along with the violence. {{clear}} ==Feature films== [[Image:Anchors-aweigh.jpg|right|200px|thumb|Jerry and Gene Kelly in the 1945 MGM musical film ''Anchors Aweigh''.]] In 1945, Jerry made an appearance in the live-action MGM musical feature film ''[[Anchors Aweigh (film)|Anchors Aweigh]]'', in which, through the use of special effects, he performs a dance routine with [[Gene Kelly]]. In this sequence, Gene Kelly is telling a class of school kids a fictional tale of how he earned his [[Medal of Honor]]. Jerry is the king of a magical world populated with cartoon animals, whom he has forbidden to dance as he himself does not know how. Gene Kelly's character then comes along and guides Jerry through an elaborate dance routine, resulting in Jerry awarding him with a medal. Jerry speaks and sings in this film; his voice is performed by [[Sara Berner]]. Tom has a cameo in the sequence as one of Jerry's servants. Both Tom and Jerry appear with [[Esther Williams]] in a dream sequence in another MGM musical, ''[[Dangerous When Wet]]''. In the film, Tom and Jerry are chasing each other underwater, when they run into Esther Williams, with whom they perform an extended synchronized swimming routine. Tom and Jerry have to save Williams from a lecherous octopus, who tries to lure and woo her into (many of) his arms. The duo was planned to appear in the 1988 [[Touchstone Pictures|Touchstone]]/[[Amblin Entertainment|Amblin]] film, ''[[Who Framed Roger Rabbit]]'', a homage to classic American animation, but their inclusion in the film was scrapped due to legal complications. <ref>Price, Jeffrey and Seaman, Peter S. (Sept. 6, 1986). ''Who Shot Roger Rabbit?'' [Screenplay]. The third draft of the ''Who Framed Roger Rabbit'' script calls for Tom and Jerry to attend "Toontown" owner Marvin Acme's funeral, a sequence ultimately not shot for the film.</ref> <!-- Image with unknown copyright status removed: [[Image:Tom and jerry the movie poster.jpg‎|right|150px|thumb|Tom and Jerry Theatrical Poster.]] --> 1992 saw the overseas release of ''[[Tom and Jerry: The Movie]]'', produced and directed by [[Phil Roman]]. The film was released to theatres in the U.S. by Miramax Films in 1993. Barbera, co-creator of the characters served as creative consultant for the picture. A [[musical film]] with a structure similar to Disney's animated features, the flick was criticized by reviewers and audiences alike for being predictable and for giving the pair dialogue (and songs) through the entire movie. As a result, it failed at the box office. In 2001, Warner Bros., which had by then merged with Turner and assumed its properties, released the duo's first direct-to-video movie, ''[[Tom and Jerry: The Magic Ring]]'', in which Tom covets a ring which grants mystical powers to the wearer, and has become accidentally stuck on Jerry's head also, Hanna and Barbera co-executive produced Tom and Jerry for the final time before Hanna's death on the 22nd day of March in 2001. Four years later, [[Bill Kopp]] scripted and directed two more cat and mouse flicks for Warner, ''[[Tom and Jerry: Blast Off to Mars]]'' (2004) and ''[[Tom and Jerry: The Fast and the Furry]]'' (2005), the latter one based on a story by Barbera. Both were released on DVD in 2005, starting the celebration of ''Tom and Jerry'''s sixty-fifth anniversary. The Fast and the Furry was released theatrically in select cities on the 3rd day of June in 2006 by [[Kidtoon Films]]. In 2006, another direct-to-video film, ''[[Tom and Jerry: Shiver Me Whiskers]]'' tells a story about the pair having to work together to get the treasure. Barbera came up with the initial idea and storyline for the next feature, ''[[Tom and Jerry: A Nutcracker Tale]]'', which, due to his death on Dec. 18, 2006, became his final animated project. Produced and directed by Spike Brandt and Tony Cervone, the holiday-set animated film was released on DVD in late 2007. It is rumored that the next direct-to-video feature, ''[[Tom and Jerry: A Little Learning]]'', will be released in 2008. ==Other formats== ''Tom and Jerry'' began appearing in [[comic book]]s in 1942, as one of the features in ''Our Gang Comics'' In 1949, with MGM's live-action ''[[Our Gang]]'' shorts long out of production, the series was renamed ''Tom and Jerry Comics''. The pair continued to appear in various books for the rest of the 20th century.<ref name="comics">[][]Tom and Jerry Comics</ref> The pair have also appeared in a number of [[video games]] as well, spanning titles for systems from the [[Nintendo Entertainment System]] and [[Super NES]] to more recent entries for [[Playstation 2]], [[Xbox]], and [[Nintendo Gamecube]]. ==Cultural influences== Throughout the years, the term and title ''Tom and Jerry'' became practically synonymous with never-ending rivalry, as much as the related "cat and mouse fight" metaphor has. ''[[The Simpsons]]'' characters ''[[Itchy & Scratchy]]'', of the eponymous cartoon on the ''[[Krusty the Clown]]'' Show, are spoofs of ''Tom and Jerry''--a "cartoon within a cartoon." The extreme cartoon violence of the ''Tom and Jerry'' is parodied and intensified, as Itchy (the mouse) dispatches Scratchy in various gratuitous, gory fashions. In one episode, Itchy & Scratchy is replaced by a cartoon called ''[[Worker and Parasite]]'', a parody of the Gene Deitch ''Tom and Jerry'' cartoons. In ''The Simpsons'' episode ''[[Itchy and Scratchy and Marge]]'' Marge gets violence banned from TV and Itchy and Scratchy became friends (that whacking intro of theirs is replaced by gift-exchanging), causing the downfall of the series. ''Tom and Jerry'' are also parodied in the original ''[[Sally the Witch]]'' anime (1966), the ''[[The Fairly Oddparents]]'' TV movie ''[[Channel Chasers]]'' (2004), and an episode of ''[[Garfield and Friends]]'' entitled ''[[Good Mousekeeping]]''. *Tom and Jerry were mentioned in [[Baby Mama (film)]] when Angie mentions Tom and Jerry as a partnership she and Kate should aim to work together like, and Kate points out that Tom and Jerry hate each other. ==''Tom and Jerry'' on DVD== There have been several ''Tom and Jerry'' DVDs released in [[DVD region code|Region]] 1 (the United States and Canada), including a series of two-disc sets known as the ''[[Tom and Jerry Spotlight Collection]]''. There have been negative responses to these sets, due to some of the cartoons included on each having cuts and/or redubbed Mammy Two-Shoes dialogue. A replacement program offering uncut versions of the shorts on DVD was later announced. In the United Kingdom, most of the ''Tom and Jerry'' shorts have been released (only two, namely ''[[The Million Dollar Cat]]'' and ''[[Busy Buddies]]'', were not included, for unknown reasons). Almost all of the shorts contain re-dubbed Mammy Two-Shoes tracks. Despite these cuts, ''His Mouse Friday'', the only ''Tom and Jerry'' cartoon to be completely taken off the airwaves in some countries due to racism, is included, unedited with the exception of extreme zooming-in towards the end to avoid showing a particularly racist caricature. One must note, though, that these are regular TV prints sent from the U.S. in the 1990s. ==Filmography== ===Notable shorts=== ''For a full list of theatrical Tom & Jerry cartoon shorts, see [[List of Tom and Jerry cartoons]]''. The following cartoons won the [[Academy Award for Animated Short Film|Academy Award (Oscar) for Best Short Subject: Cartoons]]: * 1943: ''[[The Yankee Doodle Mouse]]'' * 1944: ''[[Mouse Trouble]]'' * 1945: ''[[Quiet Please!]]'' * 1946: ''[[The Cat Concerto]]'' * 1948: ''[[The Little Orphan]]'' * 1951: ''[[The Two Mouseketeers]]'' * 1952: ''[[Johann Mouse]]'' These cartoons were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Short Subject: Cartoons, but did not win: * 1940: ''[[Puss Gets the Boot]]'' * 1941: ''[[The Night Before Christmas (Tom and Jerry)|The Night Before Christmas]]'' * 1947: ''[[Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Mouse]]'' * 1949: ''[[Hatch Up Your Troubles]]'' * 1950: ''[[Jerry's Cousin]]'' * 1954: ''[[Touché, Pussy Cat!]]'' These cartoons were nominated for the [[Annie Award]] in the Individual Achievements Category: Character Animation, but did not win: * 1946: ''[[Springtime for Thomas]]'' * 1955: ''[[That's My Mommy]]'' * 1956: ''[[Muscle Beach Tom]]'' * 2005: ''[[The KarateGuard]]'' ===Television shows=== *''[[Tom and Jerry Show|The Tom and Jerry Show]]'' (ABC, 1975&ndash;1977) *''[[The Tom and Jerry Comedy Show]]'' (CBS, 1980&ndash;1982) *''[[Tom and Jerry Kids (TV series)|Tom and Jerry Kids]]'' (FOX, 1990&ndash;1993) *''[[Tom and Jerry Tales]]'' (Kids' WB!/The CW, 2006&ndash;2008) ===Television specials=== *''[[The Mansion Cat|Tom and Jerry: The Mansion Cat]]'' (Cartoon Network, 2000) ===Theatrical films=== *''[[Tom and Jerry: The Movie]]'' (Miramax Films, 1993) ===Direct-to-video films=== *''[[Tom and Jerry: The Magic Ring]]'' (Warner Home Video, 2001) *''[[Tom and Jerry: Blast Off to Mars]]'' (Warner Home Video, 2004) *''[[Tom and Jerry: The Fast and the Furry]]'' (Warner Home Video, 2005) *''[[Tom and Jerry: Shiver Me Whiskers]]'' (Warner Home Video, 2006) *''[[Tom and Jerry: A Nutcracker Tale]]'' (Warner Home Video, 2007) *''[[Tom and Jerry: A Little Learning]]'' (Warner Home Video, 2008) ==Video games== {{main|Tom and Jerry video games}} ==See also== *[[The Golden Age of American animation]] *[[Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer cartoon studio]] *''[[Herman and Katnip]]'' *''[[The Itchy & Scratchy Show|Itchy & Scratchy]]'' (from ''[[The Simpsons]]'') *''[[Pixie and Dixie and Mr. Jinks]]'' ==References== <div class="references-small"> * Adams, T.R. (1991). ''Tom and Jerry: Fifty Years of Cat and Mouse''. Crescent Books. ISBN 0-517-05688-7. * Barrier, Michael (1999). ''Hollywood Cartoons: American Animation in Its Golden Age''. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-503759-6. * [[Leonard Maltin|Maltin, Leonard]] (1980, updated 1987). ''Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons''. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-452-25993-2. <references /></div> ==External links== {{Wikiquote}} *[ ''Tom and Jerry''] at [[Cartoon Network]] (US) *[ List of Tom and Jerry cartoons] *[ Gene Deitch] on his experiences working on "Tom and Jerry" {{Tom and Jerry}} <!--Note that category keys only sort categories; this article will still appear as "Tom and Jerry" in any category it is entered into--> [[Category:Animated film series]] [[Category:Animated television series]] [[Category:CBS network shows]] [[Category:Children's television series]] [[Category:Fictional duos]] [[Category:MGM animated shorts]] [[Category:Gold Key Comics titles]] [[Category:Dell Comics titles]] [[Category:Fictional cats]] [[Category:Fictional mice and rats]] [[Category:Tom and Jerry]] [[Category:1940 introductions]] {{Link FA|dv}} [[ar:توم وجيري]] [[bn:টম অ্যাণ্ড জেরি]] [[bg:Том и Джери]] [[ca:Tom i Jerry]] [[cs:Tom a Jerry]] [[da:Tom & Jerry]] [[de:Tom und Jerry]] [[dv:ޓޮމް އެންޑް ޖެރީ]] [[et:Tom ja Jerry]] [[es:Tom y Jerry]] [[eo:Tom kaj Jerry]] [[fa:تام و جری]] [[fr:Tom et Jerry]] [[ko:톰과 제리]] [[hr:Tom i Jerry]] [[id:Tom and Jerry]] [[it:Tom & Jerry]] [[he:טום וג'רי]] [[sw:Tom na Jerry]] [[hu:Tom és Jerry]] [[nl:Tom en Jerry]] [[ja:トムとジェリー]] [[no:Tom og Jerry]] [[pl:Tom i Jerry]] [[pt:Tom & Jerry]] [[ro:Tom şi Jerry]] [[ru:Том и Джерри (мультфильм)]] [[simple:Tom and Jerry]] [[sk:Tom a Jerry]] [[sr:Том и Џери]] [[fi:Tom & Jerry]] [[sv:Tom och Jerry]] [[th:ทอมแอนด์เจอร์รี]] [[vi:Tom và Jerry]] [[tr:Tom ve Jerry]] [[zh:猫和老鼠]]